OpenVMS Overview

This page is a short reference that should contain enough information
to get a new user up and running on an OpenVMS system. 

Topics covered:
  An overview of this document
  A quick look at the command line
  Automatically configuring a process
  Command Line Editing
  Commands, common ones in alphabetical order
  Logical Names
  Native Programs
  NonNative Programs

  Other sources of information on OpenVMS

This is version 1.8, 14-JUN-2000

An overview of this document These are the meanings of some special symbols used in this document: $ beginning of example command line. $ beginning of example command line for a command that is not part of OpenVMS, but is commonly found on such systems. {} indicates the name of a keyboard key, rather than a string to be typed. {ctrl Y} indicates that both the control and Y keys are pressed together. [] when not part of a directory specification, indicates an optional part of the command line. Acronyms are used, but all should be in the glossary. Clicking on most commands and options will bring up the most appropriate HELP section. This is version 1.5, dated 21-FEB-1997, and refers to OpenVMS 6.1. Comments, corrections, suggestions, to Thanks for comments by: back to top of document
A quick look at the command line The default command line interpeter for OpenVMS is DCL. Essentially, it implements a simple computer language, which can be used not only to control the computer interactively, but to write small progams which can be used to automate repetitive tasks. These are two equivalent forms of the same OpenVMS command: $ PRINT/COPIES=5 OUT1.TXT OUT2.TXT {RETURN} or $ PRINT/COPIES=5 OUT1.TXT - $_ ,OUT2.TXT {RETURN} The various pieces are: $ Prompt symbol. The computer writes this when it is ready to accept more commands. $_ Prompt symbol on a continuation line. PRINT Command verb. Built in OpenVMS command verbs are uniquely specified by their first four letters, foreign command verbs may require the full string. /COPIES Qualifier, modifies the command. =5 Value, modifies the qualifier. OUT1.TXT, OUT2.txt Parameters, here file specifications. - As last character on the line, indicates that the command continues on the next line. Needed when the command will not fit on one line. {RETURN} Pressing the RETURN key completes the command DCL is not generally case sensitive, the whole command line can be typed in any combination of upper and lower case letters. However, to specify a case sensitive parameter or value when it is required enclose it in double quotes. Here is a case where this is required: $ SEARCH *.* Fred Find Fred, FRED, fred, etc. in the latest version of any file $ SEARCH/MATCH=EXACT *.*;* "Fred" Find only Fred in any version of any file $ MAIL/subject="Submit" myseq.seq "SMTP%""""" Note the nested double quotes, needed to pass the final SMTP%"" address into the mailer Command names in DCL are usually English words corresponding to the action that the command performs. For instance, DIFFERENCES shows the differences between two files, COPY copies files, RENAME renames files, and so forth. back to top of document
Automatically configuring a process Overview When a process is started on an OpenVMS system the last thing that it does before turning control over to the user or procedure is to execute the contents of SYS$LOGIN:LOGIN.COM, that is a, a file named LOGIN.COM located in the SYS$LOGIN: directory, which is another name for the directory that the user's process starts out in. This lets the user set up any symbols or logical names that may be desired for particular sessions. LOGIN.COM contains a series of DCL commands, each command line begins with a $, but continuation lines do not. $! at the beginning of a line indicates a comment. Example $! First line of $! This command procedure is a framework for building an individual $! login command procedure. It is executed every time that you log $! into your account. $! $ IF F$MODE() .NES. "INTERACTIVE" THEN GOTO ENDINTER $ IF F$GETDVI("SYS$OUTPUT","MBX") THEN EXIT $! $! Preceding line used to detect a detached task and exit. $! In general, no ouput from LOGIN.COM is desired when it is run $! in a detached task. Mostly this is to keep various sorts of remotely $! initiated logins from crashing. $! $! Put commands that you want executed only on an interactive login $! between this comment and the "ENDINTER:" symbol. $! $! Define user's symbols and foreign commands for interactive sessions $! $ MYED*IT :== EDIT/EDT/COMMAND=SYS$LOGIN:EDTINI.EDT $! $! Note. While it is possible to override a default symbol such as EDIT it $! is generally a bad idea to do so!!! Using ED*IT in the above line $! could cause a DCL procedure expecting EDIT to refer to EVE/TPU (the default) $! to break. $! $ ds :== dir/size=all $ dso :== dir/size=all/owner $ myprog :== $SYS$LOGIN:MYPROG $! $! Define user's own logical names for interactive sessions $! $ define signature sys$login:signature.txt $! $! Any messages. Here, show the disk quota. Then blather something $! to the screen. $! $ SHOW QUOTA $ TYPE SYS$INPUT Be sure to pay attention to the line above this one - if you're out of disk quota you won't be saving any new data today!!! $ENDINTER: $! $! Put commands that you want executed in any mode of login below. $! $! Define user's symbols and foreign commands for any type of session $! $ HOME :== SET DEFAULT SYS$LOGIN $ myprog2 :== $SYS$LOGIN:MYPROG2 $! $! Define user's own logical names for any type of session $! $! (Re)set the default print queue for this user's processes $ DEFINE SYS$PRINT MY_GROUP_QUEUE $! $! last line of back to top of document
Command Line Editing Overview DCL implements command line editing and recall, so that users can more easily correct typing errors and reuse (parts of) previous command lines. Actions Recall buffer - access to recently issued commands $ RECALL string Bring up last command beginning with string. $ RECALL/ALL Displays all commands and their numbers. $ RECALL number Use a number found in RECALL/ALL. Command line editing (if it isn't on, do: $ SET TERM/LINE) $ {up-arrow} Previous command in recall buffer. $ {down-arrow} Next command in recall buffer. $ {Ctrl A} Toggle insert/overstrike editing. $ {Ctrl D} Move one character left. $ {Ctrl E} Move to the end of the line. $ {Ctrl F} Move one character right. $ {Ctrl H} Move to the beginning of the line. $ {Ctrl J} Delete word left of cursor. $ {Ctrl R} Rewrite the command line. $ {Ctrl U} Delete line left of cursor. $ {Ctrl X} Cancel the current command line. Miscellaneous $ {Ctrl 3} ASCII code for {Esc}. $ {Ctrl I} ASCII code for {Tab}. $ {Ctrl Z} Tell DCL "end of file". Used in some programs to indicate more general sorts of "end" commands. Of these, only {Ctrl I} will insert a character into the command line, rather than just move the cursor around. No new characters may be inserted before a tab ({Ctrl I}) in a command line, but existing characters may be changed in overstrike mode, or deleted. This behavior is documented in the "I/O User's Guide" and has existed since VMS 4.0. back to top of document
Commands, common ones in alphabetical order Overview This is a list of the commands most likely to be used by nonprivileged users. Actions $ _numeric == 20 Define a symbol that contains a numeric value. $ _symbol :== a string Define a symbol that contains a string. $ append Append one or more files to one file. $ assign Define a logical name. $ attach Transfer control of terminal to a different process. $ backup Make copies of files, directories, disks. $ continue After a {ctrl Y}, let program continue. $ convert Change the format or contents of a file. $ copy Copy a file or files. $ create Create a file. $ create/dir Create a directory. $ deassign Cancel a logical name assignment. $ define Define a logical name. $ delete Delete a file, queue entry, or symbol. $ differences Compare two files, show the differences. $ directory List a directory's contents. $ edit Edit a file. Many editors available. $ ftp Transfer files to/from another computer. $ help Get help on a topic. $ mail Start the MAIL utility, send/read/print/delete mail. $ merge Merge up to 10 presorted files into one. $ monitor Check on disk, processor, etc. usage. $ multinet ping Check the route to another computer. $ phone Interactive conversation with another user. $ posix Enter the POSIX shell (like Unix). $ print Print a file. $ purge Delete lower numbered versions of a file. $ rcp Copy files to/from another computer. $ read Read information from the screen or a file. $ recall Recall previous commands. $ rename Change the name of a file or files. $ rshell Execute commands on another computer. $ run Run a program. $ search Search file(s) for one or more strings. $ set Set many things: terminal, queue entry, priority,etc. $ show Show whatever SET can set. $ sort Sort the contents of a file. $ spawn Create a subprocess. $ stop Stop a process or queue. $ submit Start a batch job. $ talk Interactive conversation with user on another computer. $ telnet Interactive session on another computer. $ type Type a file to the terminal. $ write Send information to the screen or a file. back to top of document
Communications Overview Methods of passing data to/from other users on the same or a different computer. This includes file transfers, conversations, determining the status of remote systems, and so forth. Actions $ FINGER [user_name]@machine.subdomain.domain $ FTP machine.subdomain.domain $ KERMIT used mostly to download files through a modem. $ MAIL see the separate MAIL section. $ MULTINET PING $ PHONE [DECNET_NODE_NAME::]user $ RCP filename "machine.subdomain.domain::/dir/subdir/filename" $ RLOGIN [/user=user_name] machine.subdomain.domain $ RSHELL [/user=user_name] machine.subdomain.domain remote_command $ SET HOST DECNET_NODE_NAME $ TALK user_name[@machine.subdomain.domain] $ TELNET machine.subdomain.domain $ GOPHER Gopher client, terminal based. $ LYNX Web client, terminal based. $ MOSAIC Web client, graphical, requires DECwindows. back to top of document
Devices Overview There are many types of devices available on OpenVMS systems, such as disks, tapes, terminals, printers, and so forth. The operating system will assign each of them a name like "DKA100:" (note the trailing colon). One special device is NLA0:, which is the null device. Output directed there disappears - convenient for disposing of status messages and such. Actions $ SHOW DEVICE [/FULL] [device_name] Display information on one or more devices. Disk and tape commands, usually issued by privileged users. $ INIT device_name volume_label Initialize the device. $ MOUNT device_name volume_label Mount the volume in the device on the system. $ DISMOUNT device_name Dismount the volume in the device. Terminal commands, typically anybody can use these. $ SHOW TERM Show terminal characteristics. $ SET TERM [/WIDTH=132] [/PAGE=50] [/SPEED=9600] Change terminal characteristics. back to top of document
Directories Overview A directory is a special type of file that contains information about the other files contained within it. The directory part of a file specification is delimited by [] brackets. SET DEFAULT commands specify the "default directory", where files will be read from or written to, unless the filename explicitly specifies a different directory. Nomenclature [] The current directory. [-] One level up. [-.-] Two levels up. [--] Ditto. [...] Everything below the current level. [.*] All subdirectories one level down. SYS$LOGIN The user's login directory. SYS$SCRATCH The user's scratch directory (for large operations). Actions $ CREATE/DIR [.SUBDIR] Create a subdirectory. $ SET DEFAULT [.SUBDIR] Move to this new subdirectory. $ SET DEFAULT PRGDISK:[SHARED.PROGRAMS] Move to this location. $ SET DEFAULT [-] Move to one directory level up. $ SET DEFAULT SYS$LOGIN Move to the user's home directory. To delete a directory, first make all files in it deletable, then remove them: $ SET FILE/PROT=O:RWED [.SUBDIR...]*.*;* $ DELETE [.SUBDIR...]*.*;* Issue this command until no error messages appear. then do: $ SET FILE/PROT=O:RWED SUBDIR.DIR $ DELETE SUBDIR.DIR; back to top of document
Disks Overview A disk is a subset of device, so the commands shown in Devices apply to disks too. Those shown here are disk specific. Note that on most OpenVMS systems only privileged users manage disks. Actions $ MOUNT/MEDIA=CD_ROM/UNDEFINED_FAT=(options) DKA500: volume_label Mount a CD-ROM. $ ANAL/DISK DKA500: Search for errors on a Disk, optionally correct them. $ SHOW QUOTA Show the disk space quota: space available and used back to top of document
Files Overview Nomenclature A full OpenVMS file specification is composed of these pieces in the order shown: NODE"username password"::DEVICE:[DIRECTORY]NAME.EXENSION;VERSION_NUMBER NODE Optional, defaults to current node. If provided, specifies remote DECNET node name or number. Access String Optional on NODE. Login information for remote NODE. :: Mandatory on NODE. Delimits end of remote NODE information. DEVICE Optional, defaults to current device. If provided, specifies device where file is located. Usually a disk or tape device. : Mandatory on DEVICE. Delimits end DEVICE information. [DIRECTORY] Optional. Directory where the file is located. NAME 31 characters, may not include "." . Mandatory on EXTENSION. Delimits beginning of EXTENSION EXTENSION 31 characters, may not include "." ; Manatory on VERSION_NUMBER. Delimits beginning of VERSION_NUMBER VERSION_NUMBER Version number. Valid values are 1 to 32767. May be in relative format (3 versions earlier is "-3"). Wild Cards can be used in various positions: * Match anything. % Match any single character. In most OpenVMS commands, if a field is left blank in a file specification, it is filled in with the matching field from the input or preceding files. Examples: $ type fred.txt Type highest version of "fred.txt". $ type fred.txt;-3 Type 3 versions back of "fred.txt". $ copy fred.txt george "fred.txt" copied to "george.txt". $ copy user2:[users.fried]his.txt []mine.txt copy his.txt from another disk and directory to mine.txt in present directory. $ type *.txt Type all files with a .txt extension. Most OpenVMS programs do not modify an existing file, rather, they create a higher numbered version, retaining the original. This automatically saves earlier versions without requiring the user to explicitly rename the file. Example: $ DIR/DATE fred.txt Show all versions of this file. FRED.TXT;1 20-JUL-1995 10:09:44.00 $ EDIT fred.txt Edit it (editing session not shown). $ DIR/DATE fred.txt Show all versions of this file. FRED.TXT;2 20-AUG-1995 20:10:34.00 New one. FRED.TXT;1 20-JUL-1995 10:09:44.00 Original one. Actions $ Append filename1 filename2 Stick 1 onto the end of 2. $ Create filename Create a file. stuff Put some text into it. more stuff Put some text into it. even more stuff Put some text into it. {ctrl Z} Stop input, close file. Duplicate $ Copy filename1 filename2 copy filename1, call it filename2. $ Backup filename1 filename2 ditto. Backup is most often used for copying/restoring large numbers of files and directories. $ Type/out=filename2 filename1 ditto. Delete $ Delete filename1 Filename MUST include version number. $ Purge [filename] Delete lower numbered versions. If filename not supplied, applies to all files in directory. If filename supplied, it must NOT have version number. Edit $ Edit [/tpu] "Eve" Default OpenVMS text editor. $ Edit/EDT Used to be default OpenVMS text editor. $ Pico Simple text editor, comes with PINE mailer. $ vi Standard Unix editor, comes with POSIX. $ nedit Requires DECWindows. Simple GUI text editor. $ Xhtml Requires DECWindows. Simple HTML editor. Find see Search $ Merge filename1,filename2 filename3 Merge up to 10 presorted files into a single output file All Print commands send a job to a print queue and then return control to the command line. Jobs wait in the print queue until the printer is free, and then they are sent to it. The logical name SYS$PRINT determines which print queue will be used unless it is overridden via a /QUEUE= qualifier on the command line. $ PRINT filename Print contents on default printer. $ PRINT/QUEUE=CPS_PS Print (Postscript) contents on specified queue. $ PRINT/QUEUE=group_lw/FORM=PS_PLAIN Print (Postscript) contents on specified queue using a Form. $ SHOW QUEUE/FORM List all available print forms. Properties $ SET FILE/owner=[GROUP,USER] filename who owns it. $ SET FILE/prot=(S:RWED,G:RWED,O:RWED,W:RWED) filename Protections for System, Group, Owner ,World are Read, Write, Execute, Delete. OpenVMS supports a large number of file types, each having specific record attributes. Occasionally it is necessary to change these attributes to make the file perform better for a certain application. $ ANAL/RMS filename Determine the attributes and organization of a file. $ ANAL/RMS/FDL=fred.fdl filename As above, but save the description in a file. $ CONVERT/fdl=frd.fdl filename2 Convert filename2, the new version will have the same format as filename $ SET FILE/ATTRIB=(ORG:SEQ,RFM:FIX,LRL:512,MRS:512) filename Reset the file's attributes, do not reorganize its data. This is used most often to patch up files retrieved via binary FTP. $ RENAME filename1 filename2 Rename first to second. Search Search a directory or directories for filenames, use the DIRECTORY command: $ DIR List contents of current directory. $ DIR filename List only those that match filename, may include wildcards $ DIR FRED%.* Find files named FRED, followed by any one character, with any extension. Search a file or files for contents: $ SEARCH *.* search_string[s] Find files containing string(s) $ Sort filename1 filename2 View $ TYPE [/page] filename View contents on screen $ MOST [/page] filename View contents on screen $ DIFFERENCES filename1 filename2 Compare two files, look for differences. $ DUMP filename Various kinds of views of data in the file. back to top of document
Help Various ways of accessing on line help. $ HELP [command] Help for standard OpenVMS commands $ HELP @libname Help for additional installed software $ HELP hints Good place for beginners to start Note that OpenVMS programs that are interactive, such as MAIL or ANAL/RMS/INTER will respond to HELP within the program. Read OpenVMS manuals, especially the User's Guide $ RUN SYS$SYSTEM:DECW$BOOK Requires DECwindows $ BOOK On a text terminal $ Mosaic On a Web client - only if a Web server makes them available back to top of document
Logical Names Overview Logical names are typically used to replace parts of the file specification, but they can also hold other kinds of strings. These are some of the more important logical names. SYS$INPUT Default input, for interactive = keyboard SYS$OUTPUT Default output, for interactive = screen SYS$ERROR Default error, for interactive = screen SYS$STATUS Status returned by previous command SYS$LOGIN Login directory for process SYS$SCRATCH Scratch file directory (for large operations) Actions $ ASSIGN USRDISK:[USERS.JOE] LSYMBOL Define short cut to JOE's directory $ DEFINE LSYMBOL USRDISK:[USERS.JOE] Same as preceding (result is the same) $ DIR LSYMBOL List contents of JOE's directory $ TYPE LSYMBOL:LOGIN.COM Type USRDISK:[USERS.JOE]LOGIN.COM $ DEASSIGN LSYMBOL Remove logical name Find definition of symbol_name This series of commands shows how to redirect the standard input and output. This causes program_name to take its input from "infile" rather than the keyboard, and send its output to "outfile" rather than the screen. $ DEFINE/USER SYS$INPUT infile $ DEFINE/USER SYS$OUTPUT outfile $ RUN program_name back to top of document
MAIL OpenVMS comes with a simple mail program called MAIL. Additionally it supports many optional mail systems and transports. MAIL can send a single message from the DCL command line, or it can be put into an interactive mode for composing, reading, and manipulating messages. When MAIL is run interactively it uses a syntax very similar to DCL. In particular, HELP will get you information on how to use the program. MAIL stores received messages in two ways: small messages are stored in an indexed file called MAIL.MAI, and longer messages are stored in individual text files with names like MAIL$0ACE490D00050098.MAI, which are referenced from within the indexed file. Under no circumstances should you ever delete MAIL files EXCEPT from within the MAIL program in interactive mode! Doing so WILL mess up your mail! If you are using DECwindows, there is a GUI MAIL client which may be started from the Session Manager. Alternatively, it may be invoked this way:. $ r sys$system:decw$mail Here are the common command line/terminal ways of using MAIL: $ MAIL/subject="letter" filename user_name Send file=filename to user=user_name with subject=letter. Note that user_name can include a foreign mail transport. $ PINE Start pine for interactive use. Pine is an alternate interface to OpenVMS mail. Here is a short interactive session to demonstrate some of the typical operations in MAIL: $ MAIL Start mail for interactive use. You have 10 new messages. MAIL> DIR List messages in the NEWMAIL folder. MAIL> 5 Read message 5. MAIL> EXTRACT/NOHEADER sys$login:fromjane.txt Copy it into a text file in the login directory. MAIL> REPLY/EXTRACT Starts an editor and copies the message into it. On exit the reply is sent back to the original sender. Use the SET and SHOW commands to customize operations like this, here, to choose a different editor. MAIL> DEL 1-4,6-10 Move all other messages to the WASTEBASKET folder. MAIL> DIR/FOLDER List names of all folders. MAIL> SET FOLDER MAIL Move to another mail folder. MAIL> DIR/FROM=jane/subject=project/since=1-JUN-1995 Select a subset of all messages in this folder. MAIL> EXTRACT/ALL/NOHEADER sys$login:fromjane_project.txt Copy all of these, each separated by a form feed character into a text file in the login directory. MAIL> SET FOLDER WASTEBASKET Move to the WASTEBASKET folder. MAIL> DIR List messages in the WASTEBASKET folder. MAIL> SELECT/from=john Not going to delete those from john after all. MAIL> MOVE MAIL Move them WASTEBASKET -> MAIL MAIL> SEND/EDIT TO: SMTP%"" Internet mail, see below SUBJECT: Test An editor is started, a text file is edited, on exit it is mailed to the address shown. To mail to somebody onthe same system just put their username on the TO line. MAIL> EXIT Leave mail, delete anything left in WASTEBASKET Note 1: The SEND command in interactive mail, if invoked with no qualifiers, puts up a simple text entry window. You must type a {RETURN} at the end of each line (even though the screen usually appears to be wrapping text as in a word processor) or any but the shortest message will fail with this error: Error reading SYS$INPUT xxx byte record too large for user's buffer No message sent To avoid this problem, always use SEND/EDIT. Note 2. The SMTP (intenet) mail transport on an OpenVMS system may be provided by one of several different vendors, and several such transports, and even transports to completely different forms of mail, may be found installed on the same system. In order to instruct MAIL which of these is to handle a given outgoing message, use an address like: PREFIX%"" Where prefix is usually one of: SMTP, IN, ST, MX, or MM. Example: $ MAIL MAIL> send TO> SMTP%"" Locally correct SMTP transport The Pine mailer is usually configured to know the local SMTP transport's PREFIX and to use it automatically, so the destinations used within that program are usually just the unadorned internet addresses. Note 3. It sometimes happens that the new mail counter maintained elsewhere in the OpenVMS operating system gets out of synchronization with the actual number of unread mail messages. Most notably, it will say that you have N new mail messages when you enter mail, there are none in the NEWMAIL folder. If you ever observe this, simply issue these commands: $ MAIL You have 2 new messages. MAIL> read/new MAIL> exit back to top of document
Native Programs Overview for Executables There are three primary ways to run a program on an OpenVMS system, these are: with the RUN command, with an installed command, and with a foreign command. The first method does not allow command line parameters and qualifiers to be passed to a program, the second and third do. Installing a command system wide requires privileges, whereas using the first or third methods only requires EXECUTE permisssions on the program in question. Compiled programs on OpenVMS typically may be recognized by their file extension EXE, although the use of this extension is not mandatory. Actions for Executables $ RUN program_name RUN program located in current directory $ RUN location:program_name RUN program located elsewhere $ SEARCH filename fred Search is an installed command $ doit :== $location:program_name Define doit as a foreign command, note the position of the $ $ doit [command line parameters and qualifiers] Use the doit foreign command Overview for DCL procedures Programs can also be written in DCL, these are typically identified by the file extension .COM, although the use of this extension is not mandatory. These can be made to execute in either of two ways: Actions for DCL procedures $ @location:procedure_name [command line parameters and qualifiers] Run this procedure. $ doit :== @location:procedure_name Define doit to execute the DCL program, note the position of the @. $ doit [command line parameters and qualifiers] Use doit. Note that the syntax is identical to that used for a foreign command $ SUBMIT [/NOPRINT] [/QUEUE=queue_name] [/AFTER=time] [/LOG] procedure_name Run this procedure as a batch job. $ SPAWN/NOWAIT/INPUT=NLA0:/NOWAIT @Locations:procedure_name Run this procedure as a subprocess. back to top of document
NonNative Programs OpenVMS programs use the syntax described in "A quick look at the command line". However, programs which have been ported from Unix are usually case sensitive, they also use a Unix style command line syntax. To use programs of this type utilize double quotes to preserve case. Example: $ ted "-ABI" trace.abi back to top of document
Processes Overview Each process has certain parameters which delimit what programs running within it can do. For instance, each process has a priority value, this determines how well a program will compete for CPU time. In general, process parameters are displayed with SHOW and modified with SET, subject to the constraint that the requesting process must either own the target process, or have privileges that enable it to act on the target. Actions $ SET PASSWORD Change the password $ SET PROC/PRIO=3 Reduce priority, default for interactive is 4 $ SET PROTECT/DEF Set default protection for newly created files $ SET WORKING_SET Adjust the amount of memory available $ SHOW WORKING_SET Show memory available $ SHOW PROCESS Show information on current process $ MONITOR Show time varying information about the system. $ SHOW SYSTEM Show all processes in system $ ATTACH proc_name Attach terminal to a detached process, typically a subprocess. Or reattach to main process. $ SPAWN [command] If no command given, suspends the current process, creates a subprocess, and attaches the terminal to it. If a command is supplied, it runs as a subprocess. $ STOP [procname] Stop the process named. Requires priviliges for processes that belong to other users Interrupts {ctrl Y} Stop the current program, absolutely. {ctrl C} Stop current activity in progam, may act like {ctrl Y}. {ctrl T} Get a status line on the screen, CPU, IO, etc. back to top of document
Queues Queues are used on OpenVMS to organize noninteractive tasks so that they may be processed sequentially. Files on their way to the printer, E-mail, and batch jobs (program runs which are noninteractive and run from command files) all go through queues. The commands listed here are used to check on or modify the status of jobs in queues. $ SET ENTRY/AFTER=TOMORROW entry_number Delay processing of entry until tomorrow(s) $ SHOW QUEUE [queue_name] Show jobs in the queue(s) $ SHOW ENTRY Show any jobs this user has running $ DELETE/ENTRY=entry_number [queue_name] Stop a job $ SUBMIT [/NOPRINT] [/QUEUE=queue_name] [/AFTER=time] [/LOG] procedure Start a batch job in a queue back to top of document
Symbols Symbols are used to store data within a process. They can also be used for a variety of manipulations which are most commonly found within DCL command procedures, such as adding integers, creating filenames, editing text. Nomenclature symbol := string Symbol is string in this procedure symbol :== string Symbol is string globally symbol = "string" Symbol is string in this procedure symbol == "string" Symbol is string globally symbol2 :== this is 'symbol1' Symbol substitution on the command line symbol2 == "this is replaced -> ''symbol1'" Symbol substitution within double quotes sym_1 = "FRED.DAT" Define a symbol count = 1 Define a second symbol type &sym_'count' Equivalent to "type fred.dat". DCL has two of symbol substitution. During the first phase it does all quotes, then in the second, all ampersands. The ampersand substitution is rarely needed and infrequently seen in DCL procedures. dothis :== $PRGDISK:[PROGRAMS]action.exe Define a foreign command to start the program action.exe symbol[0,7] = number Special, for storing difficult values in a string, for instance "7" for a {bell} or "27" for an {escape}. number = %x17 Hexadecimal, Octal, and decimal radix, number = %o27 default is decimal. All of these result in the number = %d23 same value in number. number = 23 $ SHOW SYMBOL symbol_name Find definition of symbol_name $ SHOW SYMBOL * Find definitions of all symbols $ WRITE SYS$OUTPUT symbol_name Find definition of symbol_name back to top of document
DECwindows Overview DECwindows is Digital's implementation of X11 R5 and Motif. These constitute a Graphical User Interface that allows the output generated by a program (the client) to be directed to the display owned by a workstation or Xterminal (the server.) Most of the configuring of DECwindows is accomplished through the GUI Session Manager. This includes starting and stopping applications, modifying menues and so forth. DECwindows can run over DECNET, TCP/IP, and LAT transports. Actions $ set display/create/transport=tcpip/ Create a DECwindows display on a server. $ show display Show the current DECwindows display. $ run sys$system:decw$session Start the Session Manager on the server. $ create/terminal=DECTERM Start a DECTERM on the server. $ MULTINET X11DEBUG Debug DECwindows connections using the Multinet TCPIP transport. back to top of document
Glossary DCL Digital command language DECwindows DECwindows is Digital's implementation of the X11 R5 and Motif Graphical User Interface GUI Graphical User Interface PID Process identifier UIC User identification code back to top of document
Other sources of information on OpenVMS Read OpenVMS manuals, especially the User's Guide OpenVMS Web Pages maintained by Arne Vajh°j OpenVMS Web Pages maintained by Digital Equipment Corporation back to top of document