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Double Quotes and Regular Expressions

  Double quotes around a string are used to specify a  regular expression search (as defined by the GNU regular expression library). Regular expressions are a very powerful concept but rather hard to explain from scratch. If you don't know how to use them, you might have some luck with the unix man pages for ed, egrep, vi, or regex. If not, ask someone, or get any one of a number of books including the O'Reilly and Associates Sed and Awk book. The following should given an idea of how they work.

Regular expressions allows selection of all atoms with a name starting with C as:

        name "C.*"

or segment names containing a number as

        segname ".*[0-9]+.*"

As expected, multiple terms can still be provided on the list of matching keywords, as in

        resname "A.*" GLY ".*T"

to select residues starting with an A, the glycine residues, and residues ending with a T. Kind of silly, but it is just to demonstrate. As with a string, a regular expression in a numeric context gets converted to an integer, which will always be zero.

In brief, a regular selection allows matching to multiple possibilities, instead of just one character. Table 7.3 shows some of the methods that can be used.

  
Table 7.3: Regular expression methods.

So there are many ways to do some selections. For example, choosing atoms with a name of either CA or CB can be done in the following ways:

        name CA CB
        name "CA\|CB"
        name "C[AB]"
        name "C(A|B)"

Several caveats for those who already understand regular expressions. VMD automatically prepends ``^\('' and appends ``\)$'' to the selection string. This makes the selection O match only O and not OG or PRO. On the other hand, putting ^ and $ into the command won't really affect anything, selections that match on a substring must be preceeded and followed by ``.*'', as in .*O.*, and some illegal selections could be accepted as correct, but strange, as in C)|(O , which gets converted to ^\(C)|(O)$ and matches anything starting with a C or ending with an O.

A regular expression is similar to wildcard matching in X-PLOR. Table 7.4 is a list of conversions from X-PLOR style wildcards to the matching regular expression.

  
Table 7.4: Regular expression conversions.



next up previous contents index
Next: Comparison selections Up: VMD Atom Selection Previous: Quoting



Bill Humphrey
Sat Jul 1 19:21:28 CDT 1995